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Teacher Manual Reading comprehension

Exercise Overview Task

Exercise Overview Task In Art Walk, students build a sentence that describes a picture. The exercise shows a picture and a set of 4 possible sentence segments (words or phrases). The student selects the segment that should come next in the sentence. After each selection, the correct answer appears in the sentence until the sentence is completely built. Content For each picture in Art Walk, the exercise presents 5 different sentences targeting multiple grammatical structures. When all sentences for a picture have been presented, a new picture appears. Grammatical Structure Predicative Adjectives Simple Negation Infinitival Complement to Verb Passive Voice Articles Appositive Phrase Prepositional Phrase Modifying Subject, Verb, or Object Prepositional Phrase Modifying Sentence Pronouns Commonly Misused Verbs Adverbs and Adverb Phrases Subject Relativization Object Relativization Complex Sentence Compound Sentence The girl is quick. Sample Sentence The boy is not walking a dog. The child asked to hold the baby. The apple was eaten by the girl in red. She swam in a lake twice during the week. Ms. Martinez, the political candidate, is waving a flag. The kids jump on the bed. Inside the cave there is a bear sleeping soundly. She and I will go to the parade. The strong wind raises a cloud of dust. He will sweep the sidewalk completely clean. The woman who chases the dog has a leash. The baby pets a dog that is sleeping. The man was holding a bunch of apples when the cart tipped over. The man was hoping to put down the apples, however, the cart tipped over. 6 Art Walk Teacher Manual

Exercise Overview Did you know? Specific language skills are critical to reading comprehension at all reading levels. These skills include morphological awareness (understanding the way in which words can combine smaller meaningful units, such as prefixes, roots and suffixes); syntactic awareness (understanding grammatical rules and sentence construction); and vocabulary knowledge (understanding word meanings across a variety of contexts). These specific language skills have been shown to predict students’ reading achievement from early school years through middle school and even up through high school and college. However, these language skills contribute more to comprehension in higher grades as the demands of text reading increase, reflecting greater content and vocabulary challenges. The more advanced the reader, the more morphology, syntax, and vocabulary are used to comprehend the content. Some students, such as English language learners and those with developmental language difficulties, may experience more problems learning and comprehending complex grammatical structures or vocabulary in spoken language as well as in reading. For these students, explicit instruction in grammatical and morphological structures is often necessary to enhance reading comprehension. Progression In Art Walk, the student progresses through groups of sentences that vary across 5 factors to make the task more difficult: • the length of the sentence • the difficulty of the grammatical structures • the presence of the sentence stem (the first part of the sentence) • the number of steps (segments needed to complete the sentence) • vocabulary level Sentences Structures Stem Steps Vocabulary Short All Provided 1 Easy (Grade 4) Short Easy/Moderate Provided 1-2 Easy (Grade 4) Short Easy/Moderate Not Provided 2-3 Hard (Grade 4-6 & Academic) Long Moderate/Difficult Provided 1-3 Easy (Grade 4) Long Moderate/Difficult Not Provided 3-5 Hard (Grade 4-6 & Academic) Art Walk adapts to the student’s performance and provides targeted interventions if the student is struggling. Art Walk Teacher Manual 7