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Teacher Manual Reading comprehension

Exercise Overview Did

Exercise Overview Did you know? Paraphrasing requires a student to re-formulate another person’s ideas while maintaining the meaning of the original source. Accordingly, paraphrasing is an important metacognitive skill that students need to learn to understand the gist of a sentence as well as recognize alternate grammatical forms for expressing the same meaning. This skill increases comprehension and builds cognitive flexibility while also providing a bridge skill for written formulation. Paraphrasing can then be used to support students’ written arguments when explaining or referring to literature. In general, paraphrasing written text can serve as a comprehension strategy used for developing notetaking skills, as well as recognizing the role of grammatical variation that retains the same meaning. In Print Shop, students develop critical reading skills that can bridge to writing skills. The exercise provides many examples of how to say the same thing in different ways, as well as showing how small changes can completely change the meaning. The paraphrases target a variety of grammatical structures, hierarchically organized with higher level vocabulary and longer sentences as the students progress. Progression In Print Shop, students progress through 12 language structures three times, once at each level of difficulty. At each level, the exercise increases the following factors to make the task progressively more difficult: • Vocabulary level • Words per sentence • Number of sentences per passage 2nd Grade Vocabulary, Short Sentences 3rd Grade Vocabulary, Mid-length Sentences 4th Grade Vocabulary, Long Sentences Vocabulary Level Words per Sentence Sentences per Passage Grade 2 10 1-2 Grade 3 12 1-2 Grade 4 16 1-3 Print Shop presents one grammar structure at a time. To complete a structure, the student must answer all 5 questions correctly. If not, the student will revisit that structure again before advancing to the next level of difficulty. Print Shop adapts to the student’s performance and provides targeted interventions if the student is struggling. 44 Print Shop Teacher Manual

Exercise Overview Motivational Levels After each 20% of progress through the exercise, students “level up” and the screen changes slightly. These motivational levels are not connected to specific content. Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Targeted Practice This exercise uses built-in, responsive technology to detect when a student is struggling and administer targeted, inline instruction—right when the student needs it—without any external resources or assistance required. This helps reduce frustration as it quickly gets the student back on track, so they can continue making progress. One type of intervention, Verb Phrase Ellipsis, is used if the student is struggling with that content. The intervention presents the correct answers from the last three incorrect questions, with the critical words (“and so did” or “and so does”) in bold. A short audio clip explains when and why a person might use verb phrase ellipses, and suggests looking out for other paraphrases that use this approach. All of these sentences use verb phrase ellipsis to show that two subjects are doing the same thing. Rather than repeating the verb phrase, the writer used the word “so” and a helping verb, as shown in bold... Print Shop Teacher Manual 45