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FOUNDATIONS I Teacher Manual

  • Text
  • Overview
  • Syllables
  • Vocabulary
  • Autoplay
  • Processing
  • Struggling
  • Facilitate
  • Encourage
  • Content
  • Manual
STERK Engels Teacher Manual Foundadions !

Exercise Overview Task

Exercise Overview Task In Space Commander students listen to directions and then follow them by selecting or manipulating one or more tokens (objects) based on color, shape, and/or size. Content Students progress through five speech processing levels. Within each speech processing level, students work through directions from one or more of the following categories: Categories Sample Directions 1 Object, 2 Properties (color & shape) Touch the green circle. 1 Object, 3 Properties (size, color, & shape) Touch the little green circle. 2 Objects, 2 Properties (size, color, & shape) Touch the white circle and the blue square. 2 Objects, 3 Properties (size, color, & shape) Touch the little green circle and the big yellow square. Inclusion/Exclusion Sequencing Spatial Relations Except for the blue one, touch the circles. Before touching the white circle, touch the blue square. Put the white square beside the red circle. Did you know? Verbal working memory—the ability to retain ongoing information for comprehending instructional details and sequences—develops and increases over many years beginning in childhood and continuing during adolescence. Information may be stored in working memory for minutes, hours or even days before being consolidated into long-term knowledge. It is related to other listening skills like focused and sustained attention, and requires self-control and other executive functions; when practiced it builds a host of related skills. As students mature and exercise working memory, they develop strategies to enhance their working memory and learning skills. For example, while reading, working memory strategies enable students to link current information to information from prior sections of a text or to relevant classroom discussions. Working memory strategies are also used to enhance retention of story sequences and chronology. Finally, working memory strategies employed during reading of texts from varied academic disciplines like mathematics, science and history enable the student to further develop study skills as well as integrate content from several subject areas. 74 Space Commander Teacher Manual

Exercise Overview Progression In Space Commander students progress through 5 levels. In the early levels, the exercise uses modified (processed) speech to present the directions. In the processed speech, the consonant sounds in each word have been lengthened and enhanced relative to the vowel sounds. As students move through the levels, the degree of speech processing decreases until, at level 5, the words are presented using natural speech. The directions vary in complexity to make the task progressively more difficult within each processing level: • Linguistically-simple/low-memory demand directions (for example, Touch the blue square.) • Linguistically-simple/high-memory demand directions (for example, Touch the large blue square and the small red circle.) • Linguistically-complex directions (for example, Before touching the white circle, touch the blue square.) Space Commander adapts to the student’s performance at each level, and provides targeted interventions if the student is struggling. Acoustically Modified Speech Have you ever worked with a student who had modifications for additional think time, extra wait time, or for teachers to speak more slowly? All of these modifications provide the student with extra time to make sense of information, also known as processing time. For students who struggle with processing speed, and for those learning a new language, slowing down the rate of speech and emphasizing specific sounds can be very beneficial to develop accurate phonological representations, while increasing comprehension. “Why does everything sound so strange?” Fast ForWord’s acoustically modified speech technology (sometimes referred to as “glasses for the ears”) slows and emphasizes speech sounds so that students can hear all sounds in a word. This technology can even stretch out sounds that are physically impossible for human speakers to stretch on their own. Some speech sounds, such as the /b/ sound in the word “bat,” have very fast transitional elements. When we say them aloud, these elements are easy to miss, but slowing them and emphasizing them (by presenting them at a higher volume) helps the brain to hear and respond to them more quickly. The modified words and syllables in the Fast ForWord exercises may sound strange or mechanical to those who process sounds quickly. But for students who need a little extra time, the modified sounds and words will be easier to hear than natural speech. As students progress, the stretching and emphasis are reduced, pushing the brain to process at faster and faster rates until it can process natural speech. Why Does Everything Sound So Strange? (Student) in Student & Teacher Resources Why Fast ForWord Sounds the Way it Does (Teacher) in Student & Teacher Resources Space Commander Teacher Manual 75